ԧѧѧ ԧߧݧ 100 اڧݧڧۧ ۧ ٧ڧݧѧ 2011 ߧ 12- ѧ 9-12-ߧ ݧѧѧߧҧѧѧѧ ߧ ٧ڧԧէ ߧԧݧ ԧѧѧ ԧߧ ҧ ߧԧݧա ݧ ݧ է ڧߧاڧݧԧߧڧ ѧݧ . . өߧ-էߧ (ӧڧۧ )-ڧۧ ѧӧѧ ڧݧԧ. ݧ ާԧݧڧۧ үүڧۧ үݧߧԧ ڧ ߧ ާԧ ԧѧԧѧߧ.


էڧԧѧ
ߧԧ ݧ ԧ ҧѧۧԧݧѧԧէ ߧ үߧէ ٧ڧݧԧ ߧ ߧԧݧէ үߧէڧۧ ѧާԧѧѧݧѧ ӧէѧ ҧѧۧѧ ҧڧݧ. ߧԧݧ ٧ԧ ߧԧ өө ӧԧڧۧߡ (ڧ, үӧ 1982: 279, 142), ߧԧ ԧѧѧߧ ާѧߧ өөݡ, ߧԧ үߧէߧڧ ݡ ү ߧ اѧԧѧӧ, ٧ӧӧ өөӧ үӧ ѧާ ҧݧҧѧѧ ٧ڧߧࡱ (ѧԧѧاѧ 1994: 41-2, 55) ԧ ү٧ ҧѧۧاi. էߧڧ ӧ ߧԧݧ ҧէѧѧ ѧߧԧڧ ԧѧѧ, ѧڧ, ҧڧڧ, үԧۡ (ѧԧѧاѧ 1994: 41, 19) ҧѧۧݧѧ.ii
ӧ үү اڧݧڧۧ էѧѧѧߧ ߧԧݧ ҧѧڧԧէ ӧ өӧө үԧ ѧۧѧާէѧ ߧԧ ݧѧ () өө өө үߧէ ԧѧѧߧ 30 ѧѧ ҧѧԧ ѧ ڧ ҧѧۧѧ өէڧۧү ߧԧݧ ө ٧ѧԧѧѧ էԧ ҧѧԧ ߧ үߧէ ԧѧ, ק, ѧ ѧ, ҧݧӧ үߧڧۧ өԧүүݧڧۧ ާݧ٧ үߧէ ԧѧѧߧ ҧէݧԧࡱ ҧ ҧѧԧ ߧ ѧ ҧէݧԧࡱ ާ ܧѧާѧߧڧ ѧاݧ ݧ էѧѧ өүүݧ ҧѧۧݧѧ.iii


үԧ ߧԧ ݧѧ 20 ԧѧѧ ѧ ҧ ԧѧѧߧ үݧ, էݧڧ է 7 ߧԧݧا , է ߧԧݧا үߧէүү ڧ ҧ ѧا (ѧ 2005: 190). 1911 ߧ ߧ үߧէ, ߧ ݧ ԧ ү٧ԧէ ҧѧۧѧ ߧԧݧ ѧ ѧԧѧѧ, ڧߧԧ ү٧ԧէ ҧݧ? ݧѧߧԧ 1911 , 1928 ߧ ߧ өөөԧө? ѧ էԧ ѧݧ ѧڧ էݧѧ ٧ڧݧԧ ߧүү ڧݧԧݧ үߧڧ ѧߧѧѧѧݧ ݧڧݧݧ ҧѧۧߧ.
Үүߧڧ ݧ ާڧߧڧ ҧڧ 17- 20- ٧ߧ ү֧ڧۧ ߧԧݧ ҧݧ ѧۧڧ ݧ үү ҧڧݧԧڧۧ ӧѧݧا, ڧߧ ӧݧԧէ ѧۧڧ ݧ ߧԧ ӧѧݧا, 18-ѧѧ 20 ٧ߧ ү֧ڧۧ ҧݧ ӧ ѧݧѧԧڧ, էݧѧѧէ ߧԧݧ ѧݧѧѧ ٧ڧ үүү, өӧөݧ, ߧԧݧ ߧԧ էݧѧݧ էާէڧۧ ٧ڧ үүү 19- ٧ߧ үүݧ 20- ٧ߧ 50-ڧѧ ߧ үү үݧ ү֧ڧۧ ѧڧӧڧۧ ӧѧݧاէ էݧѧ ү٧ݧ.

ԧѧѧѧߧݧѧݧ ѧѧէڧԧ ӧߧէ
үԧ ݧ ߧԧݧا , үߧէ ڧ ҧۧ үߧէ ѧݧԧѧѧ ߧ ߧԧݧ ԧѧѧ ԧߧݧ ާ ѧۧ ү֧ڧۧ ݧ ݧ ѧڧݧѧ, ڧ үүүէڧۧ ҧѧڧާѧݧ ҧѧۧѧ ҧѧۧ ڧۧ өާө үڧ өөէөߧ ݧҧ ߧ үߧ ۧݧԧާا ҧڧݧ. է ߧԧݧ ԧѧѧ ԧߧݧ ݧ ѧӧѧ ҧݧ ߧԧ ݧѧ ѧ ѧԧѧѧ 30-ѧѧ ѧ ҧ ԧѧѧߧ үݧ, է ٧ ӧ, ѧާѧ ѧݧԧ үԧԧէ ҧڧ ҧݧ ߧ ާڧߧڧ ߧڧݧ ѧѧ ߧ էѧݧԧѧѧ ڧۧ үԧ ҧڧݧ.
ѧէݧ ڧߧ էݧѧѧڧ ߧ ѧݧѧѧ ߧԧ էѧ ֧էѧݧ ҧ ݧ өڧۧ ҧѧ ҧ ѧߧاڧۧ ѧԧѧԧѧ ҧѧԧѧ ҧէݧԧ, өөө ѧݧѧѧ ߧԧݧ үүէݧڧۧ ߧڧۧԧާڧۧ ӧ ѧۧާԧڧۧ ҧѧۧԧݧѧݧѧۡ ݧҧ ѧۧݧҧѧݧѧ ڧا. ӧ ާڧߧڧ էѧݧԧѧ ѧէݧ ڧ өөөө ѧۧݧҧѧݧѧѧ үԧ ҧѧۧߧ. ߧԧݧ ҧ ߧԧ ݧ ߧ ү ݧߧݧԧ㡱 үݧէ ҧݧ ߧ ߧԧݧ ݧ өڧۧ ҧѧ, ӧ ߧԧݧէ ӧ ѧۧާԧڧۧ ҧѧۧԧݧݧѧѧ ҧݧ ԧ ڧүү ѧѧߧѧѧ ѧۧݧҧѧ 1930-ѧѧ ߧ үԧ ү ߧԧݧ ߧקݧ ҧݧ ߧԧݧ ҧ үԧԧڧۧߧ ߧ ѧާ ԧѧѧߧ үۧ үէ, ѧѧէڧԧާѧѧ ѧ, ۧݧԧ, ѧۧݧҧѧݧѧ ҧݧߧ ݧҧ ҧݧ էѧݧԧѧ ާѧѧߧ ѧݧ ҧѧۧߧ.
1928 ߧ ߧԧݧ ڧߧ ҧѧڧԧէ ѧާ ߧԧݧ ԧѧѧߧ үۧ үүէߧ ү էݧҧѧ ԧѧѧѧߧݧѧݧ ѧѧէڧԧާѧѧ⡱ ѧѧ ү٧ ߧԧݧ ӧѧѧү ߧק ҧݧ ҧѧۧߧ. ݧާѧѧ ѧѧէڧԧ ߧԧ ҧ ߧԧݧէ ү٧ үߧߧڧ էԧݧޡ (үܧ 2001) ҧݧ ӧڧ өڧۧ ҧէݧԧ, է ڧߧاڧݧԧ, ҧݧӧݧ ڧ֧ާ ߧӧڧ, ߧԧݧէ ԧѧѧѧߧݧѧݧ էѧߧԧѧѧ⡱ ѧߧԧڧݧѧ, ݧԧѧӧѧݧѧ, ӧѧѧڧݧѧ, үүүүүݧ ү ү ԧѧѧѧߧݧѧݧ ѧѧէڧԧާڧۧԡ ҧڧ ҧݧԧا.
ݧާѧѧ ڧ֧ ߧԧݧէѧ ԧѧѧѧߧݧѧݧ үա ݧԧѧ էߧڧ ڧԧ үߧާڧ ҧݧԧߧ ߧԧݧ ҧݧ ߧԧ ݧ ߧ ү өө өө үߧէ, ѧ ҧ ԧѧѧߧ үݧ, ӧ, , ѧާѧ ѧݧԧ ٧ ڧاڧݧݧڧۧ ݧߧݧԧ㡱 үݧէ ҧݧ ҧѧۧߧ ԧ үԧߧݧߧ ү ҧѧۧߧ.
ݧާѧѧ ԧѧѧѧߧݧѧݧ ѧѧէڧԧޡ ߧ ߧԧݧ үԧ өէڧۧү өߧөߧڧۧ ө ԧѧѧѧߧڧݧѧߡ ҧѧۧߧ. Үүߧڧ ݧާѧѧ үԧԧڧۧ ߧԧ ԧѧѧߧ үݧԧ үݧէէ ҧ өߧөө ߧԧ ӧ ѧۧާԧڧۧ үݧԧ үݧէէ, өөөө ݧҧ ߧԧ үԧݧ үݧԧڧۧ ݧߧݧ ҧѧۧѧ ҧݧا. үүԧ ҧѧѧү ߧԧ өէڧۧү ө ٧ڧۧ ߧүү ԧѧ٧ѧ ߧѧ ө ԧѧѧѧߧݧѧԧէѧߡ ҧѧۧߧ. ѧ үүߧڧ ݧާѧѧ ө ٧ ާ ߧ ԧѧ٧ѧ ߧѧ ާѧ ߧ ү ۧݧԧԧէ ԧѧۧѧާڧԧ ӧڧէѧѧ ҧݧ өө үڧۧ ѧ үާүүէڧۧ ѧ ѧѧѧ ߧ ԧݧѧ өүүݧ, ү ү (ڧӧݧ өө үԧ) өݧө ԧѧѧѧ-ѧ үާ өүүݧԧ ԧݧާ ҧݧا.iv
ө ٧ڧۧ ө ٧ԧݧէ ѧۧݧҧѧ ѧէѧ ө ݧ ѧݧѧԧէѧ ݧڧԧէ ҧ ѧ үާ ߧ ѧݧѧԧէѧ ݧڧԧէ ҧѧۧѧߧү. ڧۧާ ө ٧ڧۧ үү ݧ ө-ڧԧߧݧڧۧ үү ԧ ڧүү ԧѧѧѧ-קݧߡ үү ҧݧ ӧڧ, үүߧڧ ѧާ ߧԧݧ ߧԧ ާ ө ݧ ү ҧ ѧڧ ө ٧ڧۧ өүүݧ ݧاڧ ߧԧ ԧѧѧѧ ҧݧ ӧڧ. ߧ ԧѧѧѧ ө ٧ڧۧ үү ө ݧ-ڧԧߧݧڧۧ ԧ ڧүү ҧѧۧԧѧݧڧۧ үүߧ ѧާѧѧѧ ҧݧا.

ߧԧݧ ݧ ߧ ҧݧԧ ߧ
ߧԧ ѧ ѧԧѧѧ, ߧ ҧѧۧէѧݧ ү ҧݧ? ߧ ѧݧѧߧ ѧڧݧѧ ݧ ߧ үүүߧ 1911 , 1928 ߧ ߧ өөөԧөө ߧԧݧ ԧѧѧѧߧݧѧݧ ѧѧէڧԧޡ ߧקݧ ҧݧ, 30 ѧѧ өө өө үߧէ ԧѧ үڧ ҧѧԧ ѧߧѧ ҧݧ ԧէԧڧۧ էݧ.
ڧ үߧڧ ާէ ҧۧԧѧѧ 1911 ߧ ߧԧݧ ԧѧѧ ԧߧݧ ԧԧ ߧ ڧߧԧڧڧۧ ԧѧѧߧ ߧק, էߧڧ ѧߧ ѧާѧѧѧ ѧԧ ӧڧݧԧѧѧ ҧѧۧѧ ҧڧݧ. 1928 ҧ өөөԧڧۧߡ Ө.ѧէѧ, .ߧէ, ߧ էѧڧߧ өөݧөէڧۧ ާާߧڧ ԧݧڧۧ () .ڧا, . ݧէ-ڧ үү, է, է, اڧߧߧ ѧ ԧѧѧݧѧ үүߧүү ާ ާڧߧ֧ߧ ѧӧڧݧ ߧԧݧ ٧ѧԧڧۧ ߧ ԧѧѧ ү ҧڧݧv. 1911 ߧ 1928 ߧ ߧ ߧԧݧ ҧݧ ѧާԧڧۧ ӧԧѧݧ өөөݧ ߧ ѧ ߧ ҧ ߧԧݧ ҧѧۧԧݧ, үүߧڧۧ ݧ ٧ էѧާߧݧѧ ѧӧ ڧ ڧߧԧڧڧۧ ԧѧѧߧѧߧ ާէݧڧۧ ѧݧ, өөөԧڧۧߡ, է, է ѧ ߧԧݧ ٧ѧѧԧݧѧ ҧݧ ӧէѧ .
ҧѧڧԧէ ѧާ ߧԧݧ ү٧ ү٧ ѧݧѧԧէѧ ҧѧۧߧ. ߧԧݧ էۧݧ, өөөݧ, ү ڧ ڧߧԧڧڧۧ ԧѧѧߧѧߧ ү٧ ѧݧѧԧէѧ үүߧڧ ߧ - ѧݧѧ өөөԧڧۧߡ է, է, ѧ ԧѧѧݧѧ ٧ѧݧ ү٧ݡ oߧԧݧ ߧקݧ ҧݧ . ѧ ԧѧѧ, ٧ѧݧ ߧѧ ߧ էߧڧۧ ڧߧԧڧڧۧ ԧѧѧߧѧߧ ү٧ݧ ѧѧݧѧ ҧ ٧ѧ ٧ԧѧѧ өөө ߧԧڧۧ ԧѧѧ, ҧݧӧ ߧ էߧ ߧԧݧ, ߧԧݧ ֧өߧڧ ݧ өڧۧ ѧާէѧݧ ߧѧڧۧ ڧڧۧߧڧۧ ۧݧԧ ҧݧާاڧۧ ާ ݧԧا. ߧ ү ߧ էߧڧۧ өӧөݧڧۧ ү٧ ѧ, өөөߧ ݧҧѧ ѧӧѧۧ өէڧۧү էѧԧѧ ҧѧѧۧ ҧݧԧ ѧ. Үߧߧէ ާڧߧ֧, өӧөݧڧۧ ҧէݧԧ ߧԧݧ ԧүүݧڧۧ ݧ ѧӧڧԧէѧ ڧ ާڧߧ֧, өӧөݧڧۧ ߧԧݧ ѧݧѧѧ ү٧ ҧѧڧާݧѧݧ өөөݧ ҧѧۧѧ . ڧۧ ڧ էߧڧ ߧԧݧ ӧݧѧ ҧѧԧ ߧ ѧ ҧէݧԧࡱ ާ ܧѧާѧߧڧ ѧاڧ ߧ ާڧߧ֧ ҧ өӧөݧڧۧ ߧԧݧ ӧݧ ҧѧۧѧ ҧէݧԧ үݧէүү өէڧۧү, өӧөݧө үߧէߧڧ ѧէݧ ڧۧէڧۧ ݧ ݧ֧ӧڧܧէ ӧݧ ҧѧۧѧ үߧէߧڧ ҧէݧԧ ݧҧѧ ҧѧۧѧ .vi
ѧ ߧ ү֧ ҧ 1928 ߧ ڧ ݧѧէڧާڧ үԧ ߧԧݧ ԧ ҧѧۧү, ѧڧ ѧݧ, ѧڧߧ, ڧѧէ, ѧѧ ԧ ާ ҧڧ ҧڧ ҧڧ֧ߧ ݧԧѧէѧ өө үڧۧ ӧ ѧۧާԧ, өөէڧۧөө ߧԧ ӧ ѧۧާѧԧ (ާߧԧݧܧާ ݧ֧ާ֧ߧ) ҧѧԧѧѧ ү٧է ߧԧ ѧ үާүү (ާߧԧݧܧڧ ߧѧէ) ҧڧ. ߧԧ ӧ ѧۧާԧէѧ ѧѧݧѧԧէѧ үߧէ ڧߧ ާէ ߧ . ߧԧ ݧ ڧߧ ԧէ ߧ ԧ ү ӧ? ߧ ߧ ѧݧ ߧ ߧԧ ѧݧԧԧѧѧ ڧߧ, ѧݧ, ѧڧߧ, ڧѧէ, өөүү էѧ ڧ ڧߧ ԧ ү. ԧէާ ߧڧۧڧۧ ҧѧۧү, ҧѧۧԧѧ үү, ҧڧ ҧڧ֧ߧ ާѧ ߧ ާاԧ ݧԧѧէѧ үݧ ѧݧԧߧ ҧѧۧէѧ, ԧ ⡱ ԧ ߧѧԧݧѧ ҧѧۧѧ ߧ ާڧߧ֧, -ѧѧ ߧԧݧ ѧݧѧѧ ӧݧ ҧѧۧѧ ҧէݧԧ ѧ ԧѧѧѧߧ ӧ , ү٧ ҧѧڧާݧѧݧ ӧ ѧ ߧڧۧݧ ҧѧۧѧ (NARK, f.R3, op.2. d. 114).vii ѧ ߧ ү֧ ݧ ߧԧݧ ۧݧԧ ߧ ѧѧէڧԧ ߧԧݧ, ߧԧ էݧѧݧ ߧקݧ ҧݧ ҧڧݧ.


ݧާѧѧ үүߧүү ѧ ߧ ѧѧէڧԧާ ݧԧ ҧݧԧ ߧԧݧ ѧڧާ ԧԧ өӧөԧ, ҧѧԧ ѧߡ ԧէ ѧѧ өө өө үߧէ ԧѧѧߧ ҧ үߧէߧڧۡ өөөݧөө үݧէ, ݧѧۧ ڧѧߧѧۧ .ѧҧѧѧѧ էѧԧѧݧݧѧ Үߧէ ԧѧѧߧ ӧէݧ өӧө ҧ ѧԧ ߧ өӧөݧڧۧ ҧѧۧԧݧ өӧөݧڧۧ ٧ѧѧӧѧ, өӧөөө, ݧѧԧ үߧߧ өө үߧէ ԧѧѧߧ ҧ ҧѧԧ ߧ ѧ ҧէݧԧࡱ ާ ܧѧާѧߧڧ ѧاݧ ү ӧݧ ߧԧݧ ҧէݧԧߧ էѧԧ өөө ҧѧۧԧݧ үԧԧڧۧ ݧ үߧէߧڧۡ, үߧէ ԧѧѧߧ, ӧ ݧ ԧѧѧߧ ӧ ݧ ߧ ߧԧ ݧ үا.viii 1930-ѧѧ ߧ ݧ үү էڧէݧѧԧ էѧ ҧڧԧڧۧ үݧ, ݧ ҧѧԧ ݧ ԧڧүү, ߧԧڧۧ էڧէݧѧԧէ էѧۧݧѧ ߧԧ էѧ үߧէ ԧѧѧߧէ үԧ, ү ѧާ ߧ ݧ, ԧѧ٧ѧ ߧѧ ӧѧѧڧݧ, ٧ѧѧ ٧ѧڧԧѧѧߧ өөөݧ ڧۧ, үߧէ ԧѧѧߧ ߧ ѧާѧ ԧݧԧ ߧ ԧ, ҧݧӧ үߧڧۧ ߧ ҧݧԧ, ק, էڧۧ ٧ѧԧڧۧ ߧ өԧүүݧ, ݧާѧѧ үߧէ ߧ ѧߧԧڧݧ ѧاݧѧ ҧѧۧߧ.
ѧ ڧۧ ڧ ߧԧ ާ ߧ ߧ ߧԧ ݧѧ ѧݧҧѧ ק үߧէߧڧ үߧէ㡱, үߧէ ԧѧѡ, ԧѧѡ-ߧ ߧ ҧ ҧݧ, ѧڧ - ߧԧ ѧէڧ ө ݧ, ߧ ߧ ҧݧ ӧڧ ߧԧݧ ߧԧ ާ үߧէ ԧѧѧߧա ҧ ѧڧ ѧݧ, өө, ѧԧѧߧԧ, ѧѧ ާ үߧէ ԧѧѧߧէѧա ѧާѧѧѧԧէѧ ҧݧ өէڧۧү ߧԧݧ ѧݧҧѧ ק ѧݧ, өө, ѧԧѧߧԧ, ѧѧ ާ ү, үүү ҧݧ үԧԧէ ҧݧ ҧѧۧߧ. ߧԧߧ ߧԧ ݧ ߧ ѧݧ, өө, ѧԧѧߧԧ, ѧѧ ԧ ާ ݧ ѧ үާߧڧ ٧ԧ ڧ ݧ үߧէ ԧѧѧߧ - ߧԧ ѧէڧ ݧ ҧݧ . Өөөө ݧҧ ߧԧ ݧѧ ߧԧݧ ҧڧ ѧڧ ѧݧ, өөүү, ѧԧѧߧԧѧ, ѧѧէ ڧ էѧ ҧݧ ӧڧѧ ҧѧۧߧ.


ߧԧݧ ѧ, ݧݧԧ ҧݧ ݧէ үԧ է ҧѧۧէѧ үߧէ㡱, үߧէ ԧѧѡ, ԧѧѡ ާ ܧѧ֧ԧ ߧѧڧߧѧݧߧ ԧէ ԧ ڧݧڧۧݧ ҧѧۧѧ ڧ ѧާѧߧ ӧ үүߧүүէڧۧ էѧѧݧԧѧӧѧѧѧ 1934 ߧ ҧڧڧ էԧѧѧ ѧѧ, өӧө ߧ ڧѧߧѧ, өө, , ѧ, Өөݧ, ߧԧѧ, ѧڧ, ԧ, , ѧѧ, ѧԧѧߧԧ, ݧѧۧ ڧѧߧѧ, ѧѧ, ѧާߧڧԧѧ ߧѧ ԧѧѧ, үߧէ ҧѧۧէݧ өүүݧ ާ ٧ڧݧէ էߧڧۧ ѧۧާѧԡ ާ է ߧ ڧۧ өէڧۧүۡ үԧէڧۧ ߧ ߧԧ үߧէߧڧۧ ԧ , өӧөݧڧۧ էާէڧۧ өө ҧѧݧѧ ݧէ ҧѧۧا (ӧ 1934). ѧ ڧۧ ڧ .ާѧ ާڧۧ үүү 1938 ү ԧѧѡ-ԧѧ ߧԧ ԧ үүүݧ ҧѧۧѧ ߧ өөڧۧөө ߧԧ ԧ ۧݧԧ ҧѧۧߧ ߧ ѧݧѧ өէڧۧү, ߧԧݧէ ݧ үߧէߧ ӧѧѧ ҧۧѧ ӧݧ ѧէѧү ҧѧۧߧ ߧ ԧڧݧ ҧѧۧԧѧ . Үߧߧէ ߧԧݧ ѧݧ, өө, ѧԧѧߧԧ, ѧѧ ާ үүүݧէ .ާѧާ ާէԧݧߧݧ ѧާѧ ӧ ѧ ڧѧߧ ߧԧݧ өөէڧۧөө ߧԧ (ݧѧ 1998: 102), ӧ է ѧѧ ѧݧ硱 ԧ үүүݧԧ ߧ өөէڧۧөө ߧԧ ԧ ۧݧԧէ, էէէѧ ҧڧݧ.
..ݧѧէڧާڧӧ էӧүүݧ ѧѧէڧԧާѧѧ өӧөݧө ҧݧԧԧէ .ڧߧ֧ (1979), .ӧѧߧӧѧߧէѧ (1959) үү ߧԧݧ էݧѧѧڧ ݧѧէڧާڧӧ ү٧ ҧѧڧާݧѧݧ ݧѧ өөݧөүүݧ ߧԧߧ ߧԧݧ 30 ѧѧ ԧѧѧߧ үݧ, է ٧ ӧ, 304 үۧݧڧۧ ߧԧڧۧ ѧݧԧ (ݧ 1993: 151) ڧݧүүݧ ҧѧۧڧ, ߧѧԧڧ, ѧѧ ߧ ԧ ߧѧڧۧӧڧݧѧ ѧݧѧ ү ԧѧԧѧѧ өէڧۧү, ٧ѧ ٧ѧߧڧ, קݧߧ ߧ ݧԧѧѧ ߧ үݧ үԧ, ݧ ҧ ߧ, ѧ ҧڧڧ, ߧӧڧ ݧ, ާ٧֧ۧ ү٧ާ ҧݧԧ ҧ ߧԧݧ ק ݧѧ, ҧݧӧݧ ҧѧۧԧݧݧѧԧ ߧ էԧ ԧѧѧߧ, ߧ ү ѧާ үүүүүݧ үۧݧէӧݧ ҧݧ ҧѧۧߧ.ix
ߧէ ү ߧԧݧ ݧ ө, ҧڧԧڧۧ ٧ѧڧ үүү ߧԧݧ өөөө ѧ ҧѧۧߧ, үүԧ ҧѧѧү ڧ ѧԧڧۧ ߧԧݧ էާ, էݧѧѧէ ү ߧԧݧ ү ө ߧ ߧԧݧէ ѧާѧ ӧ ѧ ڧѧѧ, ѧާէѧݧѧ ү ߧڧۧݧү ҧѧۧԧѧѧ ѧߧ٧ѧѧ ҧѧۧԧѧ ҧѧۧ.
ڧۧާ է ѧ .ާѧ ӧ .ӧߧڧ ӧ ߧԧݧ ѧާѧߡ ӧ ѧ⡱ ڧѧߧէѧ өөէڧۧөө ߧԧݧ ԧ ߧݧ, էէѧ ҧݧ ߧ ާѧ ڧѧۧ էݧѧ ݧէ. 1930-ѧѧ ߧ өާө ߧԧݧ ӧ է ѧѧ ү٧ ҧѧڧާݧѧ ߧ ӧѧݧاڧ ԧѧԧէѧ үݧէ ߧԧݧ ߧԧݧ 1930-ѧѧ ߧ ۧ ߧԧݧէѧѧ өөөө ԧէ ާѧߧѧ, ӧߧڧۧ ӧ ѧާѧ ҧ ѧ ڧѧߧѧ өۧөө ۧݧԧէ ҧѧۧߧ էѧݧԧѧ ާѧѧߧ ѧݧ ҧѧۧߧ. ԧߧ ԧݧ ҧ 1930-ѧѧ ߧ өާө, үүߧڧ է ݧѧߧԧ 1900- ߧ өާө ӧѧݧا ާѧѧߧ ڧӧݧ ڧߧԧڧڧۧ ԧѧѧߧ ߧק ѧۧ ߧѧ ҧݧ էߧڧ ѧާѧѧѧ ݧѧ, ѧԧէ ҧڧۧڧۧ үүү үԧէ ڧ ҧ ӧѧݧاէ ڧݧڧۧݧ ҧ ү٧ ѧߧѧѧ ڧߧԧڧڧۧ ԧѧѧߧѧߧ ѧѧէڧԧ (Chinggisid paradigm of Mongolia) ԧ ߧݧ.

ߧԧݧ ү٧ ڧߧԧڧڧۧ ԧѧѧߧѧߧ ѧѧէڧԧ
ߧԧݧ ү٧ ڧߧԧڧڧۧ ԧѧѧߧѧߧ ү٧ ߧ էߧڧ ٧ է ڧݧѧ ߧԧݧ үݧ ߧ ӧ ү٧ ҧѧۧ. Өөөө ݧҧ ڧߧԧڧڧۧ ( ҧ ҧ) ԧѧѧߧѧߧ ҧѧ ڧ ٧ѧ ڧߧԧڧڧۧ ԧѧѧߧѧߧ ӧ էѧ ҧڧ էѧѧѧ ߧԧ ݧ㡱, ߧԧ ߡ, ߧԧ ߧѧԡ, ߧԧ ӧԧߡ ҧѧۧ (.өߧ-էߧ 2006). ڧۧާ էߧڧ ߧ .ߧاѧߧߧѧ ѧԧѧѧ ާڧۧ ԧѧէߧ үү ߧԧ ާԧ ާѧߧѧ ߧ ҧڧ֧ڧۧ ߧԧ ѧۧާԧڧۧ ۧ ҧڧ ݧѧ ٧ѧ ߧڧۧݧ, үү ԧ ѧөө, ҧѧ ٧ԧѧѧ өߧ, үүߧڧ է үү өө ٧ԧѧѧ ݧԧѧ, ѧ өө ѧۧާѧ ѧݧ, өߧ, ѧѧ, ѧԧ, Өөݧ, өө, , ӧ ާ ѧӧѧ ާߧԧѧ ԧѧ٧ѧ, үާ ԧѧ٧ѧ ѧѧ ڧۧ ڧ ԧѧ٧ѧ⡱ ԧ ҧڧڧ ҧѧۧا (ߧاѧߧߧѧ 2006: 58, 57, 45).x ڧۧާ ڧ֧ ӧէ (1994) ݧߧ ڧߧԧڧڧۧ ԧѧѧߧѧߧ ӧ ߧԧ үԧݧاڧ էѧ ݧ ߡ ҧѧۧѧ өөө ٧ ߧԧ ѧԧ ѧۧڧ ݧѧѧ ѧݧѧ ԧѧѧݧѧ ԧѧѧ ө ݧ ҧݧ ߧ ү קߧ ҧѧۧѧ .


Үߧߧէ էߧڧ ߧԧݧ ү٧ ү٧ ߧ ѧۧڧ ݧ өާө ү֧ڧۧ ߧԧݧ ݧ ө, ٧ѧѧ ٧ѧڧԧѧѧߧ ҧѧۧԧݧݧ ݧҧѧѧ ѧէԧѧݧѧ , ߧԧ ѧۧڧ ݧ үߧ ݧ ө ٧ѧѧ ٧ѧڧԧѧѧߧ ӧ ٧ڧ ҧѧۧԧݧѧԧէѧ ҧѧۧߧ ү үߧ٧ԧڧ ڧߧԧ ү٧ ҧѧۧ.xi ߧ ԧѧѧѧ ڧߧԧڧڧۧ ԧѧѧߧѧߧ ߧԧݧ ү٧ ү٧ ߧ ѧۧڧ ݧ үߧ ߧԧݧ ٧ݧ ҧѧۧѧ ҧѧۧ , ݧ ө ٧ѧѧ ٧ѧڧԧѧѧߧ ҧѧۧԧݧѧ է ڧݧѧ өڧۧ үէ (seeing like a state) ߧԧݧ ү٧ ѧѧէڧԧ ҧѧۧ.xii


ѧէѧѧ ߧԧ ԧ ߧڧۧ է ߧԧ ѧۧڧ ݧ ҧѧ ԧ էѧ ٧ѧѧ ٧ѧڧԧѧ, ԧѧ٧ѧ ߧѧ, ڧ ٧ԧѧѧ, ݧ ѧѧ, ү ѧާѧ ҧѧۧѧ ڧ ڧߧԧڧڧۧ ԧѧѧߧѧ ߧԧݧ ߧԧ ݧ㡱, ߧԧ ߡ, ߧԧ ߧѧԡ, ߧԧ ӧԧߡ ԧ ѧ ҧѧۧѧ . Үߧߧէ ѧۧڧ ݧ է ߧԧݧ ݧ ѧߧݧڧ ݧ ߧԧ էӧ է ߧԧէ, ݧާѧѧ ѧۧڧ ݧ ӧݧѧ ҧէݧԧ ݧާѧѧ էԧ ѧߧݧڧԧէ ݧ өڧۧ ҧѧۧ үէԧ. ڧۧާ 19- ٧ߧ үү ү ҧݧ ѧݧ, өߧ, ӧ Өөݧ, , ӧ өө ӧ ݧԧѧѧү ҧݧ ڧ ѧݧ, өߧ, ѧѧ, ѧԧ, Өөݧ, өө, , ӧա ԧ ߧԧ է ҧڧڧԧէ ҧѧۧѧ . Өөөө ݧҧ ѧ ݧ өڧۧ ѧ ݧҧԧէ ߧ ѧݧէѧԧէѧ ڧ ѧݧ, ѧѧ ԧ ާ ߧԧݧ үڧ ѧߧݧڧԧ , ӧ, өߧ ٧ ѧۧڧ ݧ ү֧ڧۧ ٧ѧѧ ٧ѧڧԧѧѧߧ үүէ ߧԧ ѧէڧ ү٧ԧէ ҧݧ ҧѧۧߧ.


Үߧߧէ էԧڧۧ үԧէڧۧ ߧ ү ߧ ѧۧާѧԡ ԧ ߧݧ ҧѧۧѧ өөө ѧڧ ѧۧާѧԡ ߧ ѧۧ ү֧ اڧ ߧڧۧԧާڧۧ ӧݧ ߧݧ ҧڧ ҧݧԧ ߧڧۧݧ ԧѧ ԧѧѧ, ѧ өݧڧۧ ٧ڧ ҧѧۧԧݧѧݧ үڧ ө ݧ өާө ү֧ڧۧ ߧڧۧԧާڧۧ өԧاݧڧۧ ѧߧ үүүڧۧ ߧڧۧݧ ҧ ѧڧ ߧԧ ө ݧ է ҧݧ է ڧ է үүէڧۧ ߧݧէ ߧ ާק ҧѧۧѧ . Үߧߧէ ѧۧާѧԡ ԧէ ߧ ާק 17- ٧ߧ ק էԧѧѧ ѧԧѧ ү ߧԧݧ ߧݧԧէ үүէڧۧ ߧݧէ ߧ ާק ҧѧۧԧѧѧү өөө ѧ 1636 ߧ ߧԧݧ ߧק ѧߧاڧۧ ҧѧڧԧڧۧ ѧѧߧ өөާاڧݧ ѧۧڧ ݧ ҧѧۧԧݧߧѧѧ էߧڧ ٧ާүүէڧۧ ѧۧާѧԡ ԧ ߧݧ ҧݧ (ӧ 2010, өߧ-էߧ 2010, 2011). ѧۧڧ ݧ ӧݧѧ ҧէݧԧ ݧާѧѧ , ݧԧѧ ڧүү ڧ ѧ ݧҧԧէݧ ҧݧ ѧۧާԧ үէԧ, ߧ ߧ ߧԧݧ ԧѧ٧ѧ ߧԧڧۧ ԧڧۧ ߧݧէ ߧ ާק ѧ ҧݧ ҧѧۧ.


ݧާѧѧ ѧۧڧ ݧ үߧ ѧէѧѧ ߧԧݧ ү ѧާ үݧ ߧ ߧԧ ѧէڧݧѧѧ ߧԧݧ ԧ ѧߧԧڧݧ, ߧݧ ҧѧۧѧ ڧ ѧۧڧ ݧ үߧ ߧԧݧ ߧԧէ, ߧڧۧݧ ߧԧ ڧاڧݧ ԧ . ѧ ڧ ڧߧԧڧڧۧ ԧѧѧߧѧߧ ߧԧ ӧԧ ߧ ү ߧԧݧէ ѧާѧ ҧѧۧѧ . ڧۧާ 19- ٧ߧ اڧԧڧ ѧۧ ߧڧԧاѧ (2006: 60, 82-83) ԧ, Өөݧ, ۧ, өөէڧۧ ߧקէ ҧ өө үүԧڧۧ ү اڧԧڧ ӧԧߧ ԧ ҧڧڧ ҧѧۧѧ ҧ ߧԧݧ ԧѧѧ ԧߧݧ ݧ ٧ԧߧ ߧԧݧէ ٧ԧ ߧԧ өө ӧԧڧۧ ߧԧݧա, ٧ԧѧѧ ߧԧ ӧ өөݡ, ٧ԧѧѧ ߧԧ ԧѧѧߧ ާѧߧ өөݡ, ٧ԧ үߧէ ߧ өөө ѧڧ ٧ӧݧ ѧާ䡱, ٧ԧѧѧ ߧԧ үߧէߧڧ ү ߧ اѧԧѧӧ, ٧ӧӧ өөӧ үӧ ѧާ ҧݧҧѧѧ ٧ڧߧࡱ ԧ ү٧ ҧѧۧѧ ѧا.


ѧ ڧߧԧڧڧۧ ԧѧѧߧѧ ߧԧݧ ڧߧԧ ү٧ ҧѧۧѧ ڧ ߧԧݧ ө ݧ ү ߧԧݧէߧ ҧѧۧ ק ԧ ү٧ ѧէ ާէݧ үݧէ Өө ߧԧ, ѧѧߧ ҧݧѧѧ ѧӧѧ ѧԧߧ ڧѧߧѧۧ үүݧ ѧӧѧ ҧѧۧ ڧۧ ߧԧݧ ҧѧڧԧڧ ۧݧҧѧѧ ҧѧڧާѧݧ ҧѧۧا. ߧԧݧ ү٧ ڧߧԧڧڧۧ ԧѧѧߧѧߧ ү٧ ҧѧڧާݧѧ ߧԧݧ ߧקݧ ѧѧէڧԧ ҧѧۧѧ ҧ ݧѧէڧާڧӧ, үүߧүүէڧۧ ѧѧէڧԧ ѧѧߧѧѧ ԧѧ ڧ ҧѧۧ ѧѧѧ ӧ?

ߧԧݧ ү٧ ԧѧѧߧ үۧ ѧѧէڧԧ
ߧԧݧ ү٧ ڧߧԧڧڧۧ ԧѧѧߧѧߧ ѧѧէڧԧާڧۧ ѧاԧѧѧ ߧԧݧ ү٧ өө ߧ ѧѧէڧԧ ҧڧ ҧݧ ߧ , ӧ էѧڧߧ ߧԧ էݧѧ, үүߧڧ է ݧѧߧԧ 19- ٧ߧ ԧѧ٧ѧ үۧ ߧڧۧԧާݧԧ ڧݧԧ էѧ էѧѧѧԧڧۧ ڧߧاէڧۧ ҧڧ ҧݧԧ ߧԧݧ ѧݧѧѧ ԧѧѧߧ үۧ ާէݧ ҧѧۧѧ .


ҧݧ ӧ ߧԧ էݧѧ ѧݧڧާѧ, ڧѧէ էݧѧ ٧ѧާѧѧ ݧ өөө ݧާѧѧ ѧݧڧާѧ, ڧѧէ ѧݧѧѧ ާէݧԧ өէڧۧү ѧݧڧާѧ, ڧѧէէ, ݧѧߧԧ ѧۧԧѧݧڧۧ ѧߧѧէѧ ڧѧ ܧ٧ѧܧ (Cossacks) ҧݧ ڧѧէ ٧ѧݧ үүէڧۧ ݧѧާاѧۧԧѧѧ ߧԧݧ էݧѧ, ߧ ݧ ѧا. ڧۧާ ߧԧ էݧѧ ߧ ߧԧݧ ٧ѧ ٧ԧѧѧ, ѧݧҧѧѧѧ ߧ өէڧۧү, ٧ѧ ٧ԧѧѧ ѧݧҧѧѧѧ ѧѧ үէ өөԧө ݧ . ӧ ҧݧ ڧҧڧڧۧ өާө ԧ ҧڧ ҧڧ֧ߧ ѧݧݧѧԧէѧ ڧ է, ߧԧݧ ݧ өڧۧ ڧ ٧ԧѧѧ, ߧѧ էӧԧڧۧ ӧ ѧݧݧѧ ѧݧѧԧէѧ ѧѧߧ ѧѧ ѧݧڧާѧ, ڧѧէ , ӧ էާ էݧѧ ߧ ӧէѧ էߧڧۧ ߧէ ѧߧ ҧ ԧѧ ԧѧӧѧݡ, , קݧ ӧ ݧҧ, ڧاڧ ө ҧݧ өէڧۧү ݧާѧѧ ߧԧݧէѧ ݧҧ, էߧڧ ҧݧ ߧ ߧ ҧѧۧߧ. ѧѧ, ү ѧ өө ѧݧڧާѧ, ڧѧէ , ӧ էާ ӧ ѧۧާԧڧۧ ҧѧۧԧݧѧݧѧ ԧ ү٧ өէڧۧү էߧڧۧ ߧԧݧ ӧ ѧۧާѧ ԧ ү٧, ڧߧԧߧ ߧԧݧ ѧݧڧާѧ, ڧѧ ڧ ӧ ѧۧާԧէѧѧ үݧէէ ԧ ۧݧԧ ҧݧا.
Үߧߧէ ߧԧ ԧѧѧ ө ݧ ҧ ѧڧ ѧۧڧ ݧ ٧ѧڧԧѧѧߧ ڧ ѧѧ ҧѧѧ ݧ ߧק ѧۧ ߧѧ ٧ާүүէ үݧէ ҧѧۧѧ ߧ үߧէ-ݧ ڧ ү֧ڧۧ өӧөө ݧէѧ ҧݧӧ, ߧڧۧԧާڧۧ ӧѧݧ ߧ, ԧѧѧߧ үۧ ާէݧԧ ٧ӧԧݧ , ӧ էާէڧۧ ۧݧԧݧ ݧѧ ҧүүݧ өԧө ҧѧۧߧ. ѧާէѧ ߧԧ ԧѧѧ ө ݧ ҧڧ ҧѧۧѧ ڧ ݧ өڧۧ ܧѧ֧ԧ ҧڧ ѧڧ ѧߧ ԧѧѧߧ, ԧѧѧߧ үۧ, קݧ ܧѧ֧ԧ ҧѧۧݧѧ. ѧ ڧ ߧԧݧ ݧ өڧۧ ڧ ٧ԧѧѧѧѧ ҧ ѧڧ ԧѧѧߧ үۧ ڧ ٧ԧѧѧѧѧ өөөө ݧҧ ѧߧ (ԧѧѧߧ), , ק ٧ѧ ٧ѧߧݧ ڧ ٧ԧѧѧѧѧ էۧݧ էݧѧ ҧݧا. ڧۧާ ѧݧڧާѧ, ڧѧ ߧѧ ߧ ԧѧѧߧ (ߧԧѧڧ֧ܧѧ) ߧԧݧ үݧէүү ҧѧۧ. ѧ ߧէ ԧѧѧߧ үۧ ҧ է ڧߧاڧݧԧߧڧ ѧ-ߧԧݧڧ٧ (Academic Pan-Mongolism) үү өөө ߧ ߧ اڧ ݧ өڧۧ ѧ-ߧԧݧڧ٧ާ (Political Pan-Mongolism) ҧݧ ҧѧۧߧ.


ߧԧݧ ү٧ ԧѧѧߧ үۧ ҧ է ڧߧاڧݧԧߧڧ ѧ-ߧԧݧڧ٧ ߧ үߧߧէ ԧѧѧѧߧ էݧѧݧ ѧѧէڧԧ (ethnological paradigm) ҧѧۧݧѧ. ߧԧ ѧߧ, ԧѧѧߧ, קݧߡ ܧѧ֧ԧ өөөө ݧҧ ҧѧۧԧѧݧڧۧ үүڧۧ үԧէүү ҧݧ өէڧۧү ߧڧۧԧާڧۧ ӧݧ ߧݧ էѧԧ ԧѧѧѧ-ѧ үާߧڧۡ өԧاݧڧۧ ө ݧ өާө ѧ ӧѧѧڧݧѧԧէѧ, ӧ ѧۧާԧڧۧ ٧ڧ ҧѧۧԧݧѧݧѧ ҧݧا. ѧ ߧڧۧԧާڧۧ өԧاݧڧۧ ӧ ѧۧާԧڧۧ ѧѧߧ ڧ ҧѧۧѧ ڧ ߧԧ ԧѧ ԧѧݧ ݧ ݧҧ үݧ ө ӧ ѧۧާԧڧۧ ݧߧݧԧ үݧէ ҧݧ, ڧߧԧߧ ߧԧ ԧѧ ԧѧݧ ݧҧ үݧүүէڧۧ ݧߧݧ ҧݧ ӧڧ. ۧߧүү ԧѧѧߧ үۧ ѧѧէڧԧ ߧ ߧԧݧ ԧѧѧߧ үۧ ܧѧ֧ԧ ҧݧԧ ѧݧڧާѧ, ڧѧէ ߧާ өէڧۧү, ߧԧݧ өөڧۧ ߧ ԧѧ, קݧ ݧߧݧ ҧݧԧ ӧڧԧѧا. ڧۧާ ߧ ѧѧէڧԧ ߧ үߧ ѧ-ߧԧݧ өէڧۧү ҧѧ ݧ-ߧԧݧاԧڧۧ (Multiple-Mongolic) ҧѧۧݧѧ.


ߧԧݧ ү٧ ڧߧԧڧڧۧ ԧѧѧߧѧߧ ѧѧէڧԧާ ߧԧ ݧ өڧۧ ܧѧ֧ԧ ҧѧۧѧ өөө ݧ ө, ٧ѧѧ ٧ѧڧԧѧѧߧ ߧԧ ѧۧާѧ, ݧԧѧ, էѧѧ үݧէ ҧѧۧѧ ҧ ߧԧݧ ү٧ ԧѧѧߧ үۧ ѧѧէڧԧާ (ethnographic paradigm of Mongolia) ߧԧ ԧѧѧߧ үۧ ܧѧ֧ԧ өէڧۧү ԧѧѧѧ էݧѧݧ ܧѧ֧ԧ ҧݧ ԧѧѧߧ ߧԧүү ҧݧ ӧ ѧۧާѧ, ߧѧѧ (ߧѧէߧ) үݧէ ҧݧا. ߧԧߧ ѧݧ, өө, ѧԧѧߧԧ, ѧѧ ٧ ߧ ѧۧާѧ ҧ ݧ ө ٧ѧѧ ٧ѧڧԧѧѧߧ өԧاݧڧۧ ӧѧ ҧڧ ҧݧ , ߧԧ ҧ ѧڧ үүү, ѧݧ, өө, ѧԧѧߧԧ, ѧѧ ާ үүүڧۧ ߧڧۧݧ, үݧ ҧݧ ӧڧѧ ҧѧۧߧ. ۧߧүү ݧ ө, ٧ѧѧ ٧ѧڧԧѧѧߧ ߧԧ үүүڧۧ үݧ ҧݧ ӧڧѧ өէڧۧү, էߧڧۧ ԧѧѧߧ ѧѧէڧԧާѧѧ էۧݧ ҧѧۧѧ ڧ ԧѧ ԧѧѧ, ק, ٧ѧ ٧ѧߧڧ ԧ ާ ԧѧѧߧ үۧ ӧ ݧԧѧѧѧ үүүڧۧ үݧүү ҧݧا. ߧԧ ݧ өڧۧ ӧѧѧԧէѧ קݧ, ݧާѧѧ ߧ, өөөө ݧҧ ҧѧۧԧѧݧڧۧ ݧԧѧ ҧݧ ӧڧ.


ڧߧԧڧڧۧ ԧѧѧߧ ߧԧݧ ү٧ ѧѧէڧԧާ ߧԧ ݧ өڧۧ ܧѧ֧ԧ ҧݧ ӧ ڧߧԧڧڧۧ ԧѧѧߧѧߧ ٧ѧѧԧݧѧݧѧѧ ڧ ٧ԧѧѧ ߧ էۧݧԧէ, ߧ ԧѧѧѧ ѧۧڧ ݧ ѧէѧѧ ߧԧݧ ߧԧ էۧݧԧէ ҧѧۧѧ ҧ ԧѧѧߧ үۧ ߧԧ , קݧ էۧݧԧէ ѧݧڧާѧ, ڧѧէ өէڧۧү ѧާѧ ҧݧ. ڧߧԧڧڧۧ ԧѧѧߧ ѧѧէڧԧާ ߧԧ ݧ ө ٧ѧڧԧѧѧߧ ӧ ӧѧѧԧէѧ ߧ ѧ үާ ҧѧۧѧ ҧ ԧѧѧߧ үۧ ѧѧէڧԧާ ߧԧ , קݧ ӧ ڧاڧ ө ӧ ѧۧާԧէ ߧڧۧݧ ߧڧ ҧѧۧݧѧ. ڧߧԧڧڧۧ ԧѧѧߧ ѧѧէڧԧ ߧԧݧ өڧۧ, ҧѧڧԧէ өߧөөө է ѧѧ ݧ өڧۧ ѧѧէڧԧ ҧѧۧѧ ҧ ԧѧѧߧ үۧߧ ߧ ߧԧݧ ԧѧѧߧ үۧ үүէߧ ԧѧէߧѧѧ, ٧ѧ ٧ԧѧѧѧѧ, է ѧѧ ѧѧէڧԧ ҧѧۧݧѧ. ڧߧԧڧڧۧ ԧѧѧߧѧߧ ѧѧէڧԧ ߧԧݧ ݧ өڧۧ ڧ ٧ԧѧѧѧѧ ѧ ҧѧۧѧ ڧ ѧۧ ݧ өڧۧ ڧ ٧ԧѧѧ էڧۧ үݧ ߧ, ݧ ߧ ߧ ѧ үާ ԧ ѧ ҧѧۧѧ ҧ ԧѧѧߧ үۧ ѧѧէڧԧ ߧ ߧԧݧ ڧاڧ ө ݧ ӧ ѧۧާԧڧۧ ݧߧݧԧ ѧ ҧѧۧݧѧ. ڧۧާ ڧߧԧڧڧۧ ԧѧѧߧѧߧ ѧѧէڧԧ ߧԧݧ ߧ ݧѧѧ ѧ ҧѧۧѧ ҧ ԧѧѧߧ үۧߧ ߧԧݧ ڧاڧ ө ҧ ݧԧѧ ԧէ ܧѧ֧ԧڧ ѧ үүߧڧ ڧاڧ өڧۧ, өէڧۧү ݧԧѧѧ ާݧѧ ѧ ҧѧۧݧѧ.


ߧ ѧѧէڧԧާڧۧ ݧԧѧѧߧ ۧݧ է ڧݧ ..ݧѧէڧާڧӧ ҧѧۧ ڧݧڧۧݧ ҧѧۧѧ ҧ ڧاڧ өڧۧ ۧݧ ߧ ާէ .ӧߧڧ ү٧ ҧѧڧާݧѧ өөөݧ ҧѧۧݧѧ. ߧ ק ҧѧۧ ߧ է ڧߧاڧݧԧߧڧ ҧ ѧڧ ݧ өڧۧ ڧ ҧѧڧާاѧ ҧѧۧ. .ӧߧڧ ү٧ݧڧۧ ѧ-ߧԧݧ ԧէԧڧۧ ѧէڧ ..ݧѧէڧާڧӧߧ ݧ-ߧԧݧ ӧ ݧ ߧԧݧاԧڧۧ ү٧ (multiple-Mongolic) ԧ ߧݧ ҧݧ . Үߧߧէ ߧԧݧ ү٧ ԧѧѧߧ үۧ ѧѧէڧԧ ߧ ߧԧ ٧ ѧ-ߧԧݧ ҧݧ ݧ-ߧԧݧاԧڧۧ ҧѧۧѧ өөө ѧ ѧ-ߧԧݧ ҧݧԧ ӧ ݧ-ߧԧݧاԧڧۧ ҧݧԧ ԧէ ߧ ݧ өڧۧ ҧѧۧ ڧߧѧѧ ѧݧԧѧѧݧѧ үۧ ҧѧۧ. ӧ ߧԧݧ ߧԧԧ ҧѧۧ ҧѧڧާѧݧҧѧ ѧ-ߧԧݧ, ӧ ߧԧݧ ٧ѧէݧѧ, ӧѧѧ ҧѧۧ ҧѧڧާݧѧӧѧ ݧ-ߧԧݧاԧڧۧ ҧݧԧ ӧڧԧѧ ҧݧާا ѧѧէڧԧ ҧѧۧѧ . 1928 ߧ үүߧүү ѧ ݧ-ߧԧݧاԧڧۧ ү٧ݧڧۧ өүүݧ, ѧ-ߧԧݧڧ٧ާڧۧ ҧݧݧѧ өөө ٧ѧԧڧۧ ߧ ѧӧڧԧէѧ өөө էߧڧ ӧ .ӧߧڧ ҧݧ ߧԧݧ ҧѧ ҧѧڧԧէ ҧѧڧާѧݧ ҧѧۧѧ ڧߧԧڧڧۧ ԧѧѧߧѧߧ ү٧ ҧѧڧާݧѧ קݧѧ ѧ-ߧԧݧ ү٧ ҧѧۧѧ ߧ ۧݧԧާا ڧ үүߧڧۧ ө ҧݧڧݧѧ .

ݧ-ߧԧݧاԧڧۧ ү٧ݧڧۧ ݧѧݧ
է ݧ-ߧԧݧاԧڧۧ ү٧ ڧߧԧڧڧۧ ԧѧѧߧѧߧ ҧݧ ѧ-ߧԧݧ ү٧ݧڧۧ ѧݧѧ ҧݧߧ ѧӧ ү٧. ڧߧԧڧڧۧ ԧѧѧߧѧߧ ү٧ݧڧۧ ҧѧڧާݧѧԧէ էӧүүݧ ٧ڧݧ ߧ ѧۧڧ ݧ ѧէѧѧ ߧԧݧ ԧѧѧ ԧߧ ߧԧ ݧ ҧݧԧ ӧէѧ ҧѧۧѧ ҧ ѧ-ߧԧݧ ү٧ݧүүէڧۧ ٧ڧݧ ߧ ү ߧԧ ӧ ѧۧާԧڧۧ ߧۧߧ ء, էߧ үߧէߧڧ ѧާѧ ݧԧѧ, ݧާѧѧ ߧԧ өڧۧ է ߧԧԧ, ߧԧݧէ ߧԧէ ө ݧ ҧѧۧԧݧѧ ӧէѧ ҧѧۧݧѧ. ѧڧ ѧ-ߧԧݧ ү٧ݧڧۧ ߧԧ ߧ ѧۧڧ ݧ ѧѧߧ ҧѧۧѧ ߧԧݧ өէڧۧү ѧݧڧާѧ, ڧѧէ ѧާѧ ҧѧۧ.
, ѧ ק өߧө ѧݧ, ӧէ ٧ԧѧѧ ѧӧߧާ ݧԧ ٧ѧާѧѧ ߧԧ ݧ ٧ԧѧѧݧѧ ѧާ ѧ өާө ߧԧݧ, ѧԧߧ ڧѧߧѧۧ ѧݧԧѧ ѧӧѧѧѧ ڧۧէ ҧѧۧߧ. ӧ ߧԧݧ ҧѧڧԧڧ ѧۧڧ ݧ ѧէѧѧ ߧԧݧ үݧէүүߧ ҧѧۧѧ өާө ߧԧ, ѧԧߧ ڧѧߧѧۧ ҧѧѧ ѧӧѧ ҧѧۧ ڧ է 1924 ߧ - 3- ڧ ѧ ү ѧ ٧ԧ ѧ. ߧԧ үߧէߧڧۧ ߧԧ ٧ڧݧ - ާݧ٧ ѧӧѧ үۧ ҧ өڧۧ өөݧө ԧѧԧէѧ ҧѧۧѧ ߧԧݧ ҧѧڧԧڧ ߧԧ ӧԧߧ ߧԧԧ ݧ ڧۧ ҧѧѧԧѧ硱 (ѧէѧ 2001: 49), ѧԧߧ ڧѧߧѧۧ ߧԧݧ ҧѧѧ ѧӧѧ ѧ ާݧ٧ ҧѧۧѧ ѧا. ѧ ڧ - өڧۧ өөݧөڧۧ өөө ѧէݧ ݧҧԧէ ڧߧڧߧ էӧүүݧ .ѧߧ٧ѧ ާݧ٧ ѧӧѧ үۧ ҧ ڧߧڧߧ ߧѧ ٧ үүү ڧߧ үۧݧڧۧ ߧާ ԧѧԧѧѧ өէڧۧөө өөڧݧ ҧݧ ڧۧ ߧԧڧۧ үۧүү ҧڧ ԧ ѧ ѧާԧѧѧݧߧ ݧާѧѧ ѧާڧ ѧݧէѧѧ ү ҧѧۧߧ (- ԧѧӧէԧѧѧ ڧ ѧ 1966: 65).


.ѧߧ٧ѧߧ өөөөө - өڧۧ өөݧөڧۧ өөө, ѧԧߧ ڧѧߧѧۧ ߧԧݧ ԧѧѧ ҧݧԧ ٧ѧ ٧ѧѧԧէѧ ҧѧۧߧ. ݧާѧѧ ާڧߧ֧ - өڧۧ өөݧөڧۧ ڧߧ ҧݧӧݧѧ ѧاݧ ԧѧѧ ѧӧ, ާڧߧ֧ߧڧ өөөөԧ ѧӧ֧ ާѧԧѧ֧ ѧէѧѧ ߧԧݧ ݧ үާ ѧ ҧ ҧѧ ާߧԧ ӧԧߧ ߧԧ ѧէڧ өөө էүүݧүԧ ԧ ү ߧ үۧ ҧݧӧ ߧ ѧۧ ߧѧާ өڧۧ өөݧө ԧѧ үۧ ҧݧԧ ݧߧ ԧүۡѧէѧѧ ާߧԧ ҧ ҧѧ ާߧԧ ӧԧߧ է ѧߧѧݧ ԧү ү ާߧԧ ԧѧѧѧ ҧ ԧѧ٧ѧ ߧԧԧߧ ԧ ߧ ٧ڧݧէүۡߧԧ ݧѧѧ ѧԧߧ ڧѧߧѧۧ ٧ѧѧӧѧ ҧڧէ ݧԧѧ ߧԧէүԧ ԧ էߧڧ ٧ڧ үݧڧۧ ާ ٧ڧݧէүۡ (- өөӧүԧ ڧ ѧ, 1978: 97). ѧڧ ߧѧ ߧ ٧ڧݧԧէ ݧ үߧէߧڧ ѧ ѧݧڧӧѧ ӧԧ өөөө ٧ѧѧ ԧڧۧ ק ӧݧѧ үߧէ ҧݧԧӧ ٧ڧ өөө ߧ ߧ ާߧԧ ӧԧߧ ѧ үާ үߧէߧڧ өөө ݧߧ ۧߧ էߧڧ ѧڧԧ өө үۧݧү өөө өөէڧۧ է ѧߧѧݧѧѧ ߧԧէ ݧҧ ݧ ԧ ѧѧ ҧާ ҧݧ ӧէѧݧү ҧݧۡ (ө ߧ, 97-98) ԧ ߧާݧߧ ߧԧݧ ߧԧԧ ѧէѧ өڧۧ өөݧөөө ѧѧԧէѧ ݧާѧѧ 1926 ߧ ѧԧߧ ڧѧߧѧۧ ԧѧѧ ݧ ާ үݧ өӧөөө ҧѧۧߧ. ۧߧүү ߧԧݧ ݧ ѧ үާߧ, ݧ ݧѧ ӧѧѧԧէѧ ҧݧا.
үүԧ ҧѧѧү ާڧߧ֧ߧ өөөөԧ .ާѧԧѧ֧ ߧѧ ҧݧӧݧѧ өөݧө (1925 ߧ ԧѧӧէԧѧѧ ѧ үԧ ѧ է) - է ѧݧ ҧ ҧѧ үߧէߧڧ ҧѧԧ ѧۧާԧ ߧէ ѧݧڧӧѧ ԧѧѧݧѧ ү٧ ӧէݧ үөө ѧݧ, ݧѧߧԧ ҧѧ үߧէߧڧ ҧѧԧ ҧѧ ѧۧާԧէ ѧ ѧݧէ үԧ էߧүۧݧ ү٧ ާڧۧ ҧѧ үߧէߧڧ ҧѧԧ ҧѧ ѧۧާԧէ ݧԧѧӧѧݧѧү اڧߧߧ ѧէ өөө үߧէԧ硱 (- ԧ ڧۧէӧ, 1956: 113) ԧ үԧߧڧ ݧާѧѧ - ٧ԧѧѧ ҧѧԧѧ ݧ ԧѧѧߧ ѧէѧ өөөө ٧ѧѧ ҧݧԧ ҧѧݧѧ硱 ҧݧ ҧѧۧߧ (- өөӧүԧ ڧ ѧ, 1978: 113). ۧߧүү ߧԧ ݧ ݧ үߧէ, ߧ ݧ (multi-ethnic) ҧݧا.


ѧԧߧ ڧѧߧѧۧ ԧѧѧ ԧߧݧ өӧөөө ҧ ݧ ԧѧѧߧ ѧէѧ өөөө ٧ѧѧ ҧݧԧ ҧѧݧѧѧߡ ߧ ѧԧߧ ڧѧߧѧ ԧѧѧ ݧ ҧݧ ҧѧۧѧ ѧߧէާѧߧڧۧ ѧۧާѧ ԧѧ ݧ ҧݧ ү ҧݧ ԧѧ٧ѧүۡ (- էݧէԧѧѧ ڧ ѧ, 1980: 167) ԧ ү٧ݧڧۧ էӧԧ өէڧۧү اڧ .ݧѧԧڧۧ (1998) ѧݧ-өӧڧۧ ү٧ݡ (Halh-centrism) ԧ ߧݧ ާѧߧԧѧԡ ҧڧ ҧݧԧ ҧѧۧߧ. ߧԧߧ ߧԧݧ ԧѧѧ ԧߧ, ߧԧէݧڧۧ өөө ҧ үߧڧۧ ߧ ҧ ѧ-ߧԧݧ ү٧ݧ ӧ ѧݧ-өӧڧۧ ү٧ݧ ҧѧѧ ѧѧݧԧ ߧԧէا.
ۧߧүү 1924 ԧ ߧԧݧ ү٧ ڧߧԧڧڧۧ ԧѧѧߧѧߧ ѧѧէڧԧ, ݧ өڧۧ ү٧ ҧѧڧާݧѧ էѧѧԧէѧxiii өө ҧѧۧߧ. ߧԧݧ ݧ өڧۧ ѧӧѧߧ ߧԧݧ ԧѧѧߧ үۧ ѧѧէڧԧާڧۧ үүէߧ ү٧ ү٧ ߧקݧ ҧݧ үүߧڧ ק ӧڧݧҧѧ ҧݧ ѧ-ߧԧݧ ү٧, ݧ-ߧԧݧاԧڧۧ ү٧ ק өөݧө ҧݧا. ԧڧۧ ٧ѧڧԧѧѧ ѧէڧݧѧ硱 ԧ ҧݧ ѧѧߧ ٧ѧԧڧۧ ѧݧ үԧ ߧѧۧѧާէѧ ߧ өӧөݧڧۧ ٧ѧѧԧݧѧ (ӧݧѧ ӧ֧) ߧѧԧݧѧߧѧѧ ڧߧԧڧڧۧ ԧѧѧߧѧ ݧөڧۧ ѧӧѧߧѧѧ үߧէߧէ ѧڧԧէѧ өөө ѧѧߧ ҧѧۧԧݧѧ ѧݧѧԧէѧߧѧѧ ڧߧԧڧڧۧ ԧѧѧߧѧߧ ҧѧۧԧݧѧ өڧۧ ݧҧ ѧݧѧԧէѧ ҧѧۧߧ. ݧާѧѧ ѧѧߧ ҧѧۧԧݧݧ ѧݧ, ڧߧԧڧڧۧ ԧѧѧߧѧߧ ٧ѧۧݧݧѧ ߧ ߧԧݧ ڧߧԧڧڧۧ ԧѧѧߧѧ ٧ѧѧԧݧѧѧѧ ҧѧۧѧ өާө ߧԧݧ ݧ ө, ߧڧۧԧާڧۧ ҧѧۧԧݧݧ ӧ ѧѧݧѧ ҧѧۧݧѧ. Үߧէߧէ ڧߧԧڧڧۧ ԧѧѧߧѧߧ өڧۧ է ߧԧݧ ߧԧԧ ҧݧާ ڧۧߧүү үөө ѧݧէѧԧէѧ ҧѧۧߧ.
ݧާѧѧ ߧԧڧۧ ٧ѧڧԧѧѧ ѧէڧݧ, үԧ ߧѧۧѧާէѧ ٧ѧѧԧݧѧ ߧѧԧݧѧ, өӧөݧڧۧ ٧ѧԧڧۧ ҧѧۧԧݧ, ѧߧԧ ݧԧѧӧѧݧѧ اڧߧߧ ѧ է ѧէԡ өүүݧߧ Ө.ѧէѧ, .ߧէ, .ڧا, . ݧէ-ڧ, .ѧѧԧѧ ߧѧ ߧѧ, ٧ѧ ٧ԧѧѧ ӧ ү٧ݧ ѧѧ өڧۧ ߧ ԧѧѧ ҧݧާ ߧԧէا. ߧ ߧ է ڧߧԧڧڧۧ ԧѧѧߧѧ ҧݧ էߧڧ էԧ үүүا үާүүէڧۧ ߧԧݧ ѧѧ үԧէڧۧ үէڧۧԡ (birds eye view) ѧѧ էէ ѧӧاߧ үէ⡱ (worms eye view) ѧݧѧ ݧ ө, ߧڧۧԧާڧۧ өէڧۧү ߧԧݧ ү٧ ѧѧէڧԧާڧۧ, ݧ өڧۧ ү٧ ҧѧڧާݧѧݧ ӧԧѧ ҧѧۧݧѧ. էڧէѧ اݧէ ݧҧѧ ڧ ާڧߧ֧ өөөߧڧۧߧڧۧԡ էާاڧ ҧѧۧѧ ҧڧݧ. ڧۧާ 1928 ߧ Ө.ѧէѧ, .ߧէ ߧѧ өөөߧڧۧөߡ ҧݧ . ݧէ-ڧ, .ڧا ߧѧ - ҧݧԧԧէ ٧ѧݧ ٧ѧԧڧۧ ߧ ѧӧڧԧէѧ ާڧߧ֧ ҧݧ өӧөݧڧۧ ٧ѧѧӧѧѧ ѧ-ߧԧݧ ү٧ݧڧۧ ѧ էѧۧ ٧ڧ ҧѧۧԧݧѧxiv ѧާ үߧէ ԧѧѧߧ ҧէݧԧ ާ ߧڧۧ է ݧ-ߧԧݧ ү٧ݧڧۧ էݧԧүүݧ, ڧߧڧүүүݧ ߧ .ۧҧѧݧѧ, .էߧҧѧݧ ٧ѧѧԧݧѧݧ اڧүүէ ڧߧاݧ ѧѧ, ҧݧӧݧ էѧާاڧ ѧ ݧߧ ѧѧ էߧڧ ڧԧ үߧާڧ ҧݧߧ үԧ ߧԧݧ ߧڧۧԧާڧۧ ҧէڧ ҧѧۧէѧ ҧݧا. ۧߧүү ߧԧݧ ө ާڧߧ֧, - ݧѧާاѧۧԧѧѧ ߧԧߧ ߧԧݧ ٧ѧ ٧ԧѧѧѧѧ ߧ, ٧ѧ ٧ԧѧѧ ߧԧݧا үүүڧۧ үէ ٧ݧݧѧ ԧѧѧߧ үۧ ާէݧ, ѧѧէڧԧާڧۧ ߧԧݧ ү٧ өڧۧ ү (seeing like a state view), өڧۧ ҧէݧԧ ҧݧԧ ԧүүݧ, ߧԧݧ ߧԧݧا ҧݧԧ, ߧԧ ݧ ݧ ߧ ҧݧԧ ҧѧۧߧ.

үԧߧݧڧۧ ߧ: ԧ ү էѧԧѧӧѧ
էڧۧԧ ڧߧԧڧڧۧ ԧѧѧߧѧߧ ӧ ߧԧ ݧ өڧۧ ܧѧ֧ԧ ҧѧۧѧ ҧݧӧ ߧԧ ߧ өөڧۧ ԧѧѧ ө ݧү ٧ߧ үߧڧ ٧ѧ ٧ԧѧѧ ҧѧۧѧ ڧ ӧ өӧөө ݧ, ߧڧۧԧާڧۧ ӧݧ ҧݧ ѧߧ ߧݧ⡱ (racial theory) ٧ӧԧݧ էާ էݧѧѧէ үէߧ ԧѧѧߧ үۧ ܧѧ֧ԧ ҧѧۧݧѧ. էߧڧ ү ԧѧѧߧ үۧ ާէݧ ߧ ѧݧڧާѧ, ڧѧէ ѧݧѧѧ ާէݧ ҧݧ էߧڧ ݧѧާاѧۧԧѧѧ үԧէ өէڧۧү ڧӧݧ ߧԧݧ ٧ѧ ٧ԧѧѧ ߧԧڧۧ ڧ ԧէ ާէݧ է ݧԧݧѧԧէѧ үԧէ ҧѧۧݧѧ. ڧۧާ ߧ ާէݧ ߧ ߧԧݧ ԧѧէߧѧѧ, ٧ѧ ٧ԧѧѧѧѧ, է ѧѧ ԧѧѧߧ үۧ өէڧۧү ӧ-өӧڧۧ, ڧѧ-өӧڧۧ ҧѧۧߧ է ߧԧݧ ԧѧէߧ ѧݧ ڧ ҧѧۧݧѧ. ߧԧ ҧ ߧԧݧէ קݧ ߧڧۧݧԧ ߧ էۧݧ ҧѧۧߧ ӧ ާէݧԧڧۧ ߧԧ ߧ ڧߧԧڧڧۧ ԧѧѧߧѧߧ ߧԧݧ ڧүү өө ү ҧѧۧѧ ҧڧݧ. ڧۧާ ާէݧ ߧ өөөө ѧ-ߧԧݧ ڧߧا ҧѧۧѧ өөө ݧާѧѧ ݧ өڧۧ ѧ-ߧԧݧڧ٧ާ өүүݧ ҧѧۧߧ.
ݧ өڧۧ ѧ-ߧԧݧڧ٧ާڧۧ ٧ڧݧ ߧ ڧߧԧڧڧۧ ԧѧѧߧѧߧ ԧѧѧ ө ݧ ҧѧۧԧݧѧ, ߧקէ ҧڧ էѧѧѧ ٧ާүүէڧۧ ݧ өڧۧ ӧ ߧԧԧ ٧ڧݧ էѧӧѧ ҧѧۧѧ ڧ ߧ ק ү٧ݧڧۧ ݧԧѧѧ өөԧ өէڧۧү ߧԧݧ ԧѧѧߧ үۧ үէ ѧ, үүߧڧۧ үԧԧڧۧ ԧ ݧ өڧۧ ڧݧ էۧݧ ҧѧۧ ѧ үߧڧ ӧ קݧѧ ѧ-ߧԧݧ ԧ ۧݧԧԧէ ҧѧۧѧ ҧڧݧ. ڧۧާ ѧ-ߧԧݧڧ٧ ԧ ߧݧԧէ ѧا. ѧ ߧԧݧ ѧݧ, ӧէ ٧ԧѧѧ ާاߧ էۧݧ, ߧԧݧ үүߧڧ өާө ҧݧ ѧԧߧ ڧѧߧѧۧ ԧѧѧݧѧ ݧ ѧ-ߧԧݧڧ٧ާ (үүߧڧ ѧާ ڧߧԧڧڧۧ ԧѧѧߧѧߧ ү٧ݧڧۧ) ҧݧݧѧ ԧ ҧݧ . ѧ ѧ-ߧԧݧڧ٧ާ ҧݧݧѧ ݧ ާڧߧ֧ 1924, 1928 ߧ ԧݧүүէڧۧ (өߧ-էߧ 1999; ѧէѧӧѧ 2003, 2008) ٧ڧ ҧѧۧԧݧѧ өөө ߧ ӧէѧ ѧԧߧ ڧѧߧѧ, Өө ߧԧ, ҧѧۧԧѧ - է ߧ үڧ 30-ѧѧ ߧԧ, ԧڧۧ ҧڧ էѧѧѧ үߧէߧ էߧڧۧ өөөө ٧ѧѧ ڧߧ ާ өүүݧ ҧѧۧߧ. үүߧݧ ާڧߧ֧ߧ ѧߧѧѧѧۧԧѧѧ էӧүүݧ ߧԧݧ ҧѧڧ ѧݧҧѧ ѧѧݧէѧ ѧӧѧ өөө, ٧ѧ ٧ԧѧѧ, ҧݧӧ ҧѧԧѧѧ, ѧ ԧүүէڧۧ , اѧݧԧ էӧߧ ӧ ү٧ ߧ ާڧߧ֧ߧ өүүݧ էӧԧ ҧѧۧѧ үߧէ ԧѧѧԧѧѧ ݧԧѧӧѧݧѧ ԧѧէѧ ү٧ݧڧۧ үݧ ѧӧѧ үاڧ ڧާ ө ҧݧ ߧ ۧݧԧާا .


ѧ ڧߧԧ ߧԧݧ ԧѧѧߧ үۧ үէ, ӧ ѧۧާԧڧۧ үէ, ѧ ԧѧѧߧ үէ էۧݧ ѧѧէڧԧ ߧԧݧ է ѧߧԧڧۧߧߧ, ߧѧ, اѧݧԧ էӧߧ ү٧ݧ ڧ ߧԧݧ ө, ߧڧۧԧ, ڧߧاݧ ѧѧ, ѧߧѧѧߧ ߧקݧ ҧݧ ҧѧۧߧ. ۧߧүү ݧ өڧۧ ٧ڧݧԧ ݧ ާڧߧ֧ ҧݧ өӧөݧ ߧԧݧ ѧߧѧ, ѧߧڧ ާէүۧxv ӧ ҧѧۧݧէѧ էѧԧݧ, ߧԧݧ ү٧ ԧѧѧߧ үۧ ѧѧէڧԧާڧۧ ߧԧݧ үߧߡ ҧݧԧ ԧ ҧѧۧߧ. ۧߧүү ߧԧݧ ӧ ү٧ ѧߧѧ, ڧߧاݧ ѧѧߧ էݧԧүүݧ, ߧԧݧէ ݧ ߧ, өөէڧۧөө ӧ ڧߧاݧ ѧѧߧ үүէߧ ߧ էݧѧէѧ ҧݧԧ өէڧۧү, էߧڧۧ ק ڧԧߧڧݧ ѧ үާߧڧ ԧ үݧա էӧүүݧ ݧѧ, үүߧէ ԧݧ, ڧ ԧݧ, ѧѧ ڧѧէէ ѧڧԧݧѧ өөөө ҧѧۧѧ . ѧߧڧ ߧѧ ڧߧاէڧۧ өөөө 50-ڧѧէѧ اڧݧڧۧ էѧѧ өӧөݧ ٧ѧѧ, ާڧߧ֧ߧ ݧѧާاѧۧԧѧѧ ҧڧ֧ݧݧ ݧا (ѧߧڧ 1881: III-XVI).


өөө ѧݧѧѧ ާڧߧ֧ ҧݧ өӧөݧڧۧ үߧէߧڧ ѧݧѧѧ ҧէݧԧ ߧ ߧԧݧ өէڧۧү - ԧѧѧߧ үۧ ѧѧէڧԧ է ڧݧѧ ҧѧۧѧ ҧڧݧ.xvi ө ү֧ өӧөݧө ӧѧԧէѧ ҧѧۧѧ үߧէߧڧ ҧէݧԧ ߧ ٧ߧ үߧڧ է ҧѧۧѧ ݧ үߧէߧڧ ѧ үާүүէ үߧէߧڧ өөөө ٧ѧѧ ڧߧ էүүݧ ߧ էߧ үߧէߧڧ ө ݧ ݧҧ (form of nationhood) ҧݧ ѧӧߧާ ڧۧ ݧԧ ٧ѧާѧѧ էߧڧ ԧѧѧ ԧߧ ԧ ާݧ٧ݧݧڧۧ ѧ٧ѧѧݧѧѧ ڧԧݧԧէ ҧѧۧѧ ҧڧݧ. ڧۧާ ާڧߧ֧, өӧөݧڧۧ ߧԧݧ ӧݧѧ үߧէߧڧ ҧէݧԧ ߧ өӧөݧڧۧ үߧէߧڧ ҧէݧԧ ݧէѧ ݧҧ ѧӧ ԧݧ ٧ڧݧԧ ߧ өө өө ҧѧۧ. өӧөݧө үߧէߧڧ ҧէݧԧ ߧ էԧ ݧ ѧ үާߧڧۧ өӧөݧڧۧ ٧ߧ үߧڧ է ҧѧ ҧѧۧѧ ڧԧݧԧէ ҧѧۧѧ ҧ ߧԧݧ ҧէݧԧ ߧ ߧԧݧ ӧѧѧѧ, ҧݧѧѧ ԧݧԧէ .
ѧ үүߧڧ ݧާѧѧ ߧԧݧ ݧ ߧԧݧا ѧ үާүү ҧݧ, ߧԧ ݧ ݧ ߧ ҧݧ өէڧۧү ߧԧ էݧѧݧ ԧѧѧߧ ѧѧէڧԧ ӧѧѧү ߧקݧ ҧݧ, ݧާѧѧ ߧԧݧ өߧөө ӧ ѧۧާѧԧݧѧԧէѧء, ߧԧ ө ݧ ҧ ҧѧۧԧѧݧڧۧ үүڧۧ, էݧҧѧ ߧڧۧԧާڧۧ ӧݧ է ѧѧߧ ѧѧ үԧէүү ҧݧا.
ԧѧѧ ԧߧ, үߧէߧڧ ө ݧ էݧڧ էѧѧ үԧݧ үߧէߧڧ ߧԧէ, ߧԧѧ, ڧاڧݧݧڧۧ өүүݧ, ҧүүݧ ڧ үү. ڧߧԧڧڧۧ ԧѧѧߧѧ ߧԧݧ ԧѧѧ ԧߧݧ ߧѧԧݧѧէѧ ѧ ڧۧ ү٧ ҧѧڧާݧѧݧѧ ҧѧۧѧ ѧا. ӧ ߧԧݧ ԧѧѧ ԧߧݧ էڧէѧ ڧߧԧڧڧۧ ԧѧ ٧ѧݧԧѧާاݧѧ ڧ үүүէڧۧ өާө үڧ өөө, үүڧۧ ѧӧѧߧѧѧ ѧڧԧէѧ ѧާ է ٧ߧ էѧާߧݧѧ ѧӧ ڧ ݧ , ԧѧ٧ѧ ߧѧ ߧ ԧݧ ڧԧէ ҧѧۧߧ. үүԧ ҧѧѧү קԧ ߧ էߧڧ ݧ өڧۧ ү٧ ҧѧڧާݧѧݧ ѧݧѧ ڧߧاݧ ѧѧߧ ߧ үߧէ ݧԧݧѧѧ, ӧ, ٧ѧ ٧ԧѧѧ, ѧ էէ ү٧ ߧԧݧ ԧѧѧߧ үۧ ܧѧ֧ԧ ҧݧԧ өէڧۧү ڧߧԧڧڧۧ ԧѧѧߧѧߧ ٧ާүүէڧۧ ӧ ѧۧާѧ, ѧ ҧݧԧ ԧߧ ڧߧԧڧڧۧ ԧѧѧߧ ߧѧۧ ߧѧ ӧ ѧۧާԧڧۧ էڧէѧԧڧ ҧݧԧا.
ѧѧ ҧѧѧ ԧѧѧ ԧߧ, ٧ ѧݧէѧѧүۧ ҧ ڧߧԧڧڧۧ ԧѧѧߧѧ ߧԧݧ ٧ѧѧԧݧѧ ӧ ҧѧۧѧ ҧѧۧ ާѧԧѧէүۧ է ߧԧ ӧ ߧԧݧ ֧ާѧ ݧ ѧ үާүүէڧۧ ߧԧ ѧէڧ ݧҧߧ ҧݧ է ԧѧѧ ԧߧ ө ݧ ҧѧۧ ҧѧۧѧ ҧѧۧ ҧݧ .


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